Friday, 15 September 2017


Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomicmolecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface scienceorganic chemistrymolecular biologysemiconductor physicsmicrofabricationmolecular engineering, etc.  The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
Nanotechnology & Education
As nanoscale science and technology come to have increasing impacts on many aspects of our daily lives, the opportunities for careers in these fields are expanding rapidly.  A major challenge for the field is the education and training of a new generation of skilled workers. Career areas as diverse as designing medical diagnostic devices to building better batteries, creating cosmetics, enhancing energy-efficient windows, auto and plane manufacturing, or researching the nature of matter itself will all depend upon knowledge of nanoscale science and technology. Current applications of nanoscale science and technology, with corresponding career opportunities, exist in areas such as:
Electronics/semiconductor industry
Medical fields
Automobile industry
Pharmaceuticals including drug delivery, cosmetics, among others 
Materials science including textiles, polymers, packaging, among other 
Environmental monitoring and control
Sports equipment
Food science: quality / packaging
Aerospace industry
National security
University and federal lab research
Nanoscale science and technology are fueling a revolution in manufacturing and production, creating new materials and novel processes.  Not only will the areas listed above continue to grow and benefit from nanotechnology, but the following fields are expected to undergo explosive developments:
Medicine:  diagnostics and therapeutics (e.g., drug delivery)
Energy:  capture, storage, & use; fuel cells, batteries
Environmental remediation:  in conjunction with GM microbes
Robotics:  many uses
Manufacturing:  self-assembly; “bottom-up” fabrication of novel materials
Commerce: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)  “smart” tags
Space exploration:  space elevator
As these lists of nanoscience-based applications indicate, our world is increasingly dependent on science for food, shelter, energy, etc.  For our democratic society to function effectively, citizens must become familiar with at least some basic science and, perhaps even more importantly, with thinking scientifically.  

Nanoscale phenomena underlie many of the properties and interactions of matter, and thus the sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as mathematics and computer sciences.  Studying these fields, and paying attention to the developments in nanoscience that advance them and the applications in nanotechnology that they support, can provide you with a solid foundation for any of a broad range of careers. Potential fields of study include: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Environmental Science, Agricultural Science, Engineering, Medicine, Forensic Science, Law, Business, & Ethics. 


Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. It was the Russian biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov who boosted studies on immunology, and received the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his work. Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the: physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseaseshypersensitivitiesimmune deficiency, and transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitroin situ, and in vivo. Immunology has applications in numerous disciplines of medicine, particularly in the fields of organ transplantation, oncology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, psychiatry, and dermatology.

The important lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus and bone marrow, and chief lymphatic tissues such as spleentonsilslymph vesselslymph nodesadenoids, and liver. When health conditions worsen to emergency status, portions of immune system organs including the thymus, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues can be surgically excised for examination while patients are still alive. Many components of the immune system are typically cellular in nature and not associated with any specific organ; but rather are embedded or circulating in various tissues located throughout the body.